About us in mass media

Video highlights:
New Scientist
Russian TV
TV News - YNN - Your News Now
Nanotechnology news
Israeli TV program
Audio highlights:
ACS Podcast
German radio
Russian radio
Israeli radio
Big Picture Science

12 May 2015

Our paper entitled "Bridging the Two Worlds: A Universal Interface between Enzymatic and DNA Computing Systems" by co-authors: S. Mailloux, Y.V. Gerasimova, N. Guz, D.M. Kolpashchikov, E. Katz was published by Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. and highlighted by Nature Nanotechnology: Molecular computing: A logical connection.

22 July 2014

The book "Implantable Bioelectronics" edited by Prof. Katz was highlighted in the web-site of Kazan University (Russia). One of the chapters in this book was written by researchers from Kazan University.

28 March 2014

Our research was highlighted in SPIE Newsroom: Boolean logic systems for biochemical analysis.
SPIE is an international society advancing an interdisciplinary approach to the science and application of light.

21 March 2014

Our group web page was highlighted by Wired web-magazine (UK): "Look at these amazing academic pages. Just look at them".

7 February 2014

Two our papers published recently in Analyst (RSC) have been selected as HOT articles and highlighted by the RSC.

23 December 2013

Biocomputer decides when to administer drugs
Our research on biomarker-stimulated drug release was highlighted by Chemistry Word (RSC).
Experts in the area explained: A Prasanna de Silva, a molecular computation expert at Queens University Belfast, UK, describes the system as a rare example of logical drug release. While, professor in unconventional computing at the University of the West of England, UK, Andy Adamatzky says that ‘Katz's lab has opened new application domains for future and emergent computing paradigms. They transform unconventional computing from a purely theoretical field to a vibrant experimental area where concepts of unorthodox information processing and decision making can be realised with biomolecules and, potentially, applied to personal illness treatment.’

Another highlight was published by Clarkson's News: Clarkson University Researchers Developing Personalized Medicine.

12 December 2013

Cutting edge chemistry in 2013

Expert panel of journal editors Chemistry World (RSC) included our work in the list of "ground breaking research

"Another group has developed a bioassay that can be used to analyse blood samples on-site to give investigators an early indication of a suspect’s ethnicity.Evgeny Katz at Clarkson University, US, in collaboration with Jan Halámek, now at the State University of New York at Albany, analysed levels of two biomarkers – creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase – in the blood of people of Caucasian and African American ethnicity. They then developed a bioassay to amplify the differences in these levels. The test could successfully distinguish between ethnicities in real human blood samples, as well as samples a day old, as could well be the case at a crime scene."

October 15, 2013

Our research on forensic science allowing to recognize ethnicity from biomarker analysis in blood was highlighted by: Clarkson News, Chemistry World (RSC), North Country Now, Daily Courier-Observer, Lab Manager, Watertown Daily Times, Forensic Magazine, Bioanalysis-zone, CAMP Annual Report,

February 17, 2013

Big Picture Science radio featuring Kevin MacVittie, graduate student of chemistry, Clarkson University, New York, on his work deriving energy from lobsters.

October 21, 2012 (continuously updated)

Our research on implanted biofuel cells was extended to biofuel cells implanted in lobsters connected in serial and used to activated an electronic watch (as a model device). In another system several fluidic biofuel cells mimicking human blood circulation system were used to activated a pacemaker. A new paper was published in Energy & Environmental Science and highlighted by:
RSC (Chemistry world blog), RSC (Publishing Blog), Technology Review (published by MIT), Technology Review (German version), ChemEurope.com, Road to Abundance, Khaleej Times,
in Russian: Meandr.org,
in German: heise.de,
in Dutch: ct.nl,

April 22, 2012 (continuously updated)

Our research on implanted biofuel cells was highlighted by G4 TV channel - see the video clip here: "How To Harvest Electricity From Lobsters".

The story was also highlighted in the internet: treehugger.com, EcoFriend, chrisroubis.com,
also in Ukrainian: Green Tech,
in German: Innovaatio,
in Croatian: Vidi

April 16, 2012 (continuously updated)

Our research on implanted biofuel cells was extended to assembling individual biofuel cells implanted in clams in batteries with parallel or serial connections. A new paper was published in Energy & Environmental Science and highlighted by:

March 23, 2012 (continuously updated)

Our research on a biofuel cell implanted in a snail was published in JACS and highlighted by articles published in Nature and Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. as well as in web editions of Nature, Science, Scientific American, New Scientist (video file), The Scientist (image of the day), ACS Podcast (text and audio file), The New York Times, Popular Science, as well as by many other web sites, saying that we created a "cyborg" snail:

The Register, IEEE Spectrum, Metro (see how it looks in the printed version of newspaper), msnbc, Discover Magazine, Watertown Daily Times, North Country Now, The Jerusalem Post, PhysOrg.com, mnn.com, Live Science, Wired, geekosystem, dailymail, theatlantic, International Business Times, DVICE, Voice of America (also Russian edition of Voice of America), Science Daily, Facebook, Next Big Future, TheTechJournal, News Pano, InnovationNewsDaily, UCLA, Tek-Bull, Yahoo! News, Mobiledia, Green It All, Gizmag, Newswise, IOwnTheWorld.com, Engadget, The Verge, Cryptogon.com, Physics Today, Gizmodo, io9.com, EcoFriend, Lab Manager, E-ENERGYMARKET, Dewayne-Net Technology Weblog, Critical Mass, ZeitNews, Dice, Technodhuniah, theAtlantic, digg.com, fiz1.com, newsodrome, solrnow.com, topicfire, defencealert.com, Military Technologies, Azocleantech, hendrakusuma20.blogspot.com, Israeli Innovation News, BioFuelsChat, Energy Harvesting Journal, news.softpedia.com, electricity.com, Northcountry Public Radio, Clarkson News, United Academics Magazine, SMART Group, BioSpace, Robot Companions Blog, ElectronicsWeekly.com, Smithsonian.com, TriplePundit, The Engineer, Zeenews.com, Environmental Health and Safety News, Geeky Gadgets, AZoCleanTech, Mobiledia, Fellow Geek, Astrobiology Magazine, clickege.net, mobilenewsplus.com, zoenature.org, post-gazette.com, chemistrynewsarticles.blogspot.com, Daily Lounge, Android Speichern, The Varsity, toy4vip.com, TG Daily, Earth Techling, treehugger.com, follow-tech.blogspot.com, Science & Technology News, Wired.co.uk (audio news), Softpedia, Biozine, Patexia, crackajack.de, newKerala.com, Powervar, Lucas Laursen - journalist, geeksaresexy.net, Canada Free Press, narutoforums.com, Machines Like Us, News Track India, Osman-Splendorous, Nano Werk, R&D Magazine, Co.Exist, Giz-Tech, Celsias, njuice.com, ottoingram, ANI News, spacedaily, Hamara Photos, Smarticle, Newsblaze, India Talkies, hydrogenfuelnews.com, ecomagination, Deccan Herald, Brainwaves, IsraelSeen.com, Huff Post Science, lucaslaursen.com, Daily Courier - Observer, The Titi Tudorancea Bulletin, realitypod.com, LTNet.tv (watch video at 18:50 min from the beginning), Planetsave, transhumanisticpanspermia.tumblr.com, techsciencenews.com, sciencespacerobots.com, emmamoore1.typepad.com, element14.com, theverge.com, Printed Electronics World, Homeland Security News Wire, Rigorous Intuition, Wanderlustmind, CAMP December Newsletter, Conservation magazine, Titi Tudorancea Bulletin, Tomsguide,

including funny interpretation of our research: Youtube and Green Tech Weekly -
then this is our goal.

The research has been highlighted in many countries in different languages
giving very "special" interpretation of our results):

in Israel in Hebrew: Reshet Bet (Israeli radio), Channel 10 in Israeli TV, Haaretz (Israeli newspaper), iba.org.il, rotter.net,

in Germany
by the German radio - "Deutschlandfunk" (click on Cyborg-Schnecken for the audio file) DRadio Wissen, podster.de, podcast.at, podcast.de,
and in the internet: modern-nerdfare.com, Laborwelt, Welt On Line,

art has been inspired by our "cyborg" snail (Cyborg-Schnecke in German)

in Czech by National Geographic (
edition), Nejlepší články, prtip.cz, odkazatel.eu, Ihned.cz,

in Hungarian: Energiacentrum,

in Italian by
Le Scienze, Corriere Della Sera, Cado in Piedi, Zeus News, accento-news.it, Treccani.it, Nextme, Orizzontenergia,

in French: Mavoiescientifique,

in Spanish by: unedbarbastro.es, quieroestarsano, parandoreja (Mexican),

in Swedish by Feber,

in Chinese: guokr.com, youliv.com, bbs.0912520.com, he.people.com.cn, gamersky.com, gamme.com (Taiwan),

in Thai: Postjung.com,

and by many web sites in Russian: ИТАР-ТАСС, Vesti (text and audio), FacePla.net, chespe.ru, rnd.cnews.ru, rosinvest.com, Shema.ru, KM.ru, tphp.ru, greenrussia.ru, prorobot.ru, NanoNewsNet.ru, ecolife.ru, membrana.ru, horoshienovosti.info, efspgau.ru, utro.uz, newseveryhour.ru, novosti-n.mk.ua, glavred.info, botanika.zn.uz, tert.am, 2045.ru, smartgrid.ru, jewish.ru, Newspaper "MP", armadaboard.com, popmech.ru, nt.ck.ua, blogs.computerra.ru, livestream.ru, infoniac.ru, InoPressa, CNEWS, novostey.com, stmegi.com, Armenia Today, news.open.by, Best of News, LiveJournal, Canadian Panorama, blogs.computerra.ru, EcoEnergy, Complexdoc, beregienergy, volt-spb.ru, science.compulenta.ru, imxo.in.ua,
Ergonet, popmech.ru, nn-online.ru, uliter.ru, d3.ru, Donbass News, armtown.com,

The team who created this "cyborg" snail
(from left to right):
Dr. Lenka Halámková,
Dr. Jan Halámek,
Dr. Vera Bocharova,
Alon Szczupak (Israel),
Prof. Lital Alfonta (Israel),
Prof. Evgeny Katz (not shown)

April 2011

Nanotechnology news from Pennwell Publishing has featured research in our group. See a short video interview on-line (scroll partway down the page, find Nanotechnology Videos and then scroll down and click on the play button for the image similar to shown at the left; the video clip can be watched directly here).

Calendar image inspired by the scientific figure

Original figure in the research paper: D. Volkov, G. Strack, J. Halámek, E. Katz, I. Sokolov, Atomic force microscopy study of immunosensor surface to increase sensitivity and scale down size of ELISA-type sensor. Nanotechnology 2010, 21. article # 145503.

An image inspired by the work of Clarkson University researchers is featured on a 2011 calendar published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). Founded in 1874, IOP is a worldwide leading communicator and publishing organization with more than 40,000 members, publishing 60 journals read in more than 180 countries, The graphic for February features a pattern "inspired by force curves corresponding to combinations of antibodies on an immunosensor surface." It was motivated by a paper, titled "Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Immunosensor Surface to Scale Down Size of ELISA-type Sensor" (Nanotechnology, 2010, volume 21, number 14) and written by Clarkson University graduate students Dmytro Volkov, Guinevere Strack, and Jan Halamek (postdoctoral fellow), and Professors Evgeny Katz, and Igor Sokolov. Katz is the Milton Kerker Chaired Professor of Colloid Science, and Sokolov is director of the Nanoengineering and Biotechnology Laboratories Center (NABLAB). The research was done within the NABLAB Center, a unit established to promote cross-disciplinary collaborations within the University. Comprising more than a dozen faculty members, the center capitalizes on the expertise of Clarkson scholars in the areas of cancer cell research, fine particles for bio and medical applications, synthesis of smart materials, advanced biosensors, etc.

Tuesday, March 1, 2011 - College Notes
Evgeny Katz was listed by Thomson Reuters in the list of top chemists for the decade 2000-2010.

On February 10, 2011, Thomson Reuters released data identifying the world’s top 100 chemists over the past 10 years as ranked by the impact of their published research.
The top 100 is intended to celebrate the achievements of chemists who achieved the highest citation impact scores for chemistry papers (articles and reviews) published since January 2000. Thomson Reuters published the table in support of the International Year of Chemistry. Read the full report below the table.
Top 100 Chemists, 2000-2010, Ranked by Citation Impact
Among those with 50 or more papers (fragment of the table)

Rank Name / Institution
Papers Citations Impact
62 Evgeny KATZ / Clarkson University
97 6,147 63.37

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) have proclaimed 2011 the International Year of Chemistry. During the year, celebrations and special events will be held around the globe “to increase the public appreciation of chemistry in meeting world needs, to encourage interest in chemistry among young people, and to generate enthusiasm for the creative future of chemistry.” The table above is intended to celebrate the achievements of 100 chemists who achieved the highest citation impact scores for chemistry papers (articles and reviews) published since January 2000. Citation impact (citations per paper) is a weighted measure of influence that seeks to reveal consistently superior performance. To ensure that a high score could not be achieved by a few highly cited papers, a threshold of 50 papers was used in the analysis. The average citation impact in chemistry for the period was 11.07, so all the researchers listed above achieved more than five times that mark. Since approximately a million chemists were recorded in the journal publications indexed by Thomson Reuters during the last decade, these 100 represent the top hundredth of one percent. Sixteen of those listed also ranked in the top 100 by citation impact in materials science, among those who published 25 or more papers in that field during the last decade. Their ranks in materials science [MS] are noted beneath their ranks in chemistry. Nanotechnology in all its aspects is strongly in evidence when one surveys the research interests of the chemists listed. While the rubric covers much, and some skeptics call “nano” the latest fad in chemistry, there is no denying the message of the citation indicators. The field has attracted enormous interest during the last decade.  Of the 100, 60 of these chemists identify nanotechnology as their main focus or a significant research topic. The national affiliations of the authors are: 70 for the United States, seven for Germany, four for the United Kingdom, two each for Canada, France, Denmark, Switzerland, and South Korea, and one apiece for Australia, Belgium, Sweden, Italy, Israel, South Africa, Brazil, Japan, and Singapore. The institutions appearing three or more times are: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (6), The Scripps Research Institute (5), University of California Berkeley (5), Harvard University (4), Rice University (4), Northwestern University (4), California Institute of Technology (3), University of California Riverside (3), and University of Chicago (3). To provide a more comprehensive view of high-impact researchers in chemistry, lists of the top 100 researchers in materials science and in biochemistry will appear during the year on ScienceWatch.com.

TV News - YNN - Your News Now

Technology could help wounded service members
By: Rachael Paradis

It's technology that could save many lives. And even though it's just in the research phase right now, our Rachael Paradis tells us more about technology that could provide medical care to service members injured in the field.

POTSDAM, N.Y. -- It's a simple patch that will be worn at all times by service members and it could be their safety when in the line of duty.

One of the professors leading this research says when the body suffers an injury, certain chemicals are released. This patch would, in turn, release other chemicals or drugs to help treat the service members until more stable care can be reached.
"If somebody is injured, there is a big problem to get immediate help, directly on the battle field and we are just looking to create an automatic system," said Evegny Katz, Clarkson University Chemistry Chair. According to Professor Katz, this is just the beginning of research and it will be years until it can be put to use. "There is a big difference between fundamental research in university and final practical evaluation. It will be designed by next step of research," Katz said. There are about 20 people conducting the research, half of which are here at Clarkson. The other half are in California. For research students like Kevin Macvittie, it's a great hands-on opportunity."It's really just an excellent way to prepare for the future. The thing about being able to do research as an undergrad is you get to get a little feeling for what things are like after school," Macvittie said. The research is funded by the Department of Defense and cost about $2 million. They're only about halfway through this research phase. It will last about another two years and after that, it will start to be developed by other engineers. The research team mentioned in California is headed up by Professor Joseph Wang with the University of California in San Diego.

11 February 2011

Scientists in the US have made a system that rapidly detects both explosives and nerve agents, providing a simple yes-no response. The technique could replace two time-consuming tests that are currently used to assess these threats. Joseph Wang and colleagues from the University of California, San Diego, combined their expertise in threat detection and electrochemical biosensors with the biocomputing experience of Evgeny Katz from Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY. The team produced an enzyme-based logic gate with the ability to simultaneously detect both nitroaromatic explosives and organophosphate nerve agents. The team fed 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the nerve agent paraoxon into the system, in which a series of reactions catalysed by four enzymes takes place. The products of these reactions deplete hydrogen peroxide, which is used to indicate the presence of one or both threats. H2O2  levels exceeding a selected threshold indicate 'safe' situations, while  levels below the threshold value signify a 'hazardous' situation.
The explosives and nerve gases are fed through an enzyme-based logic gate system, in which the depletion of hydrogen peroxide detects their presence. Escalating threats of terrorist activity have led to urgent demands for innovative devices to provide on-site detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosive materials. The pressure is therefore on scientists to develop faster, more reliable and portable sensing technology to detect as many threats as possible and to alert the operator when a hazard has been encountered. The ability to simultaneously measure different types of threats holds considerable promise for diverse security screening and surveillance applications,' says Wang. 'The new system is still at an early stage, but the goal is to provide an early and rapid warning for a potential threat and to follow this with identification of the specific hazard.' 'This study shows that the interface of biology and computing delivers a new class of simple, low cost and reliable analytical devices,' says Lars Angenent, an expert in bioelectrochemical systems at Cornell University in the US. 'This is exciting innovative work and I'm looking forward to seeing other important applications for this technology,' he concludes.

CLARKSON PROFESSORS: Inclusion in worldwide ranking considered an honor

POTSDAM — Two Clarkson professors have been ranked among the top chemists in the world.

Evgeny Katz, professor of chemistry and biomolecular science, and Egon Matijevic, professor of colloid and surface science, have been placed on the Hirsch index. The list is compiled by the London-based Royal Society of Chemistry, a professional organization for chemical scientists.
"It's a pleasure just to see your name on such a list," said Mr. Katz, who is the Milton Kerker-chaired professor of colloid science. "This is about chemists around the globe — Chinese, Russians, Europeans, everyone is there — so to be number 300-and-something is pretty good."
Mr. Katz ranks in at 380 among 587 chemists around the globe. Mr. Matijevic is 218, according to the index. Neither is a member of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Thursday, January 13, 2011

POTSDAM – Clarkson University's Egon Matijevic, the Victor K. LaMer Professor of Colloid and Surface Science, and Evgeny Katz, the Milton Kerker Chair in Colloid Science, are listed in the H-index of living scientists. The H-index attempts to measure both the scientific productivity and the apparent scientific impact of a scientist. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other people's publications. At ranking #218, Matijevic, with an H of 69, has published 69 papers (among total 575 papers), which have each received at least 69 citations. At ranking #380, Katz, with an H of 60, has published 60 papers (among more than 300 papers), which have each received at least 60 citations. It should be noted that this listed of the most-cited chemists totals only 587 worldwide with the two Clarkson's professors among them. The index was suggested by physicist Jorge E. Hirsch as a tool for determining quality of scientific publications of a person and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The purpose of this index is similar to the popular impact factor, which is used to rank the quality of scientific journals, but it is applied to a person. The definition of the H-index and the explanations of its importance can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-index . The latest list, compiled by Henry Schaefer of the University of Georgia, together with colleague Amy Peterson, was updated in November 2010 and can be found at http://www.rsc.org/images/H-index%20ranking%20of%20living%20chemists(March%202011)_tcm18-85867.pdf

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

A paper published in the leading journal ChemPhysChem by Evgeny Katz of Clarkson University and two coauthors has been cited more than 1,000 times, Clarkson says. Katz coauthored "Nanoparticle Arrays on Surfaces for Electronic, Optical, and Sensor Applications" with Andrew N. Shipway and Itamar Willner in 2000. The paper has continued to be one of the most accessed papers in the journal for the past 10 years, when the journal was first published. ChemPhysChem is a prestigious journal published by Royal Society of Chemistry, the leading organization in Europe for advancing the chemical sciences.

Clarkson University, Center for Advanced Materials Processing (CAMP)

Research Assistant Professor
Dr. Jan Halámek
CAMP ANNUAL REPORT 2009-2010 pages 7-8

With the aim of improving the survival rate of injured soldiers, a team working at Clarkson University is designing a biocomputing system that is capable of diagnosing multiple injuries upon analysis of a complex combination of various biomarkers. The goals of the present research are to design, optimize, and critically evaluate a multi-enzyme system composed of concatenated enzyme-based logic gates which are capable of performing Boolean logic operations. This system will be applied to the automated processing of biochemical/physiological information and interfaced with electronic transducers and signal-responsive drug-delivery materials or actuators. By employing multiple clinically-relevant injury/trauma biomarkers as inputs for the enzyme gates, the new biochemical logic system would provide high-fidelity diagnostics much better than conventional single biomarker sensors. Recent work of a team of students headed by Research Assistant Professor Dr. Jan Halámek resulted in the formulation of a novel approach to the biomedical logic systems. A modular system comprising six logic gates was prototyped whose outputs were multiplexed into one concise injury code that could identify 64 unique injury conditions among 4096 possible physiological scenarios. This innovative paradigm would enable injury gates to be interchanged as needed for different battlefield conditions. It represents a substantial development in the bioprocessing capabilities of the biocomputing logic gate systems. The results have been published (Analyst 2010, vol.135, pages 2249-2259) and highlighted at the website of the Royal Society of Chemistry (UK): http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/cb/Volume/2010/09/logical_injury_assessment.asp. Dr. Halámek has been invited with a plenary lecture to the 2010 International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research at Fort Leonard Wood, MO, to describe the results of the study. The innovative research is conducted within the framework of the project supported by a multi-million dollar award from the Office of Naval Research.  This work is being carried out under the general supervision of Professor Evgeny Katz as part of a CAMP program at Clarkson University.

Research Assistant Professor
Dr. Vera Bocharova

CAMP ANNUAL REPORT 2009-2010 page 8

A novel switchable biocatalytic interface has been designed by a team of students headed by Research Assistant Professor Dr. Vera Bocharova. A nanostructured biocatalytic interface reversibly gating electrochemical reactions upon chemical signals processed by immobilized enzymes was a goal of the project. The chemical signals were converted to local interfacial pH changes causing restructuring of the stimuli-responsive polymer and switching ON–OFF the electrochemical reaction. The switchable interface represents the first example of a fully functional integrated nanostructured system composed of the biocatalytic entities transducing the chemical signals into pH changes and the gating polymer responding to the local pH value by its restructuring. The results of the work were published in a prestigious international journal (Chem. Commun. 2010, vol. 46, pages 2088-2090). The present result opens the way to enzymatically controlled biochemical interfaces for various biotechnological applications. The system complexity could be scaled up to a multi-enzyme ensemble processing many biochemical signals and resulting in future implantable bioelectronic devices with interfaces controlled by physiological concentrations of biochemicals. The team (advised by Dr. Bocharova) continues the work to apply the developed approach for drug release controlled by external biochemical signals. This project is one of the most important directions being taken within the framework of the multi-million dollar program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.  The research is being performed under the general supervision of Professor Evgeny Katz as part of a CAMP program at Clarkson University.

The cartoon shows schematically the switchable biofuel cell controlled by pH changes produced in situ by the enzyme logic systems processing biochemical inputs.

June 2010

CAMP June Newsletter: Page 4

Biofuel cells with switchable power release, controlled by biochemical signals logically processed by biomolecular computing systems, have been designed by Professor Evgeny Katz and his group. The switchable properties of the biofuel cells are based on the polymer-brush-modified electrodes, with the activity dependent on the solution's pH value. The pH changes generated in situ by biocatalytic reactions allowed the reversible activation - inactivation of the bioelectrocatalytic interfaces, thus affecting the activity of the entire biofuel cells. Boolean logic operations performed by either enzymes-or immune-based systems were functionally integrated with the switchable biocatalytic process, allowing for logic control over them. Scaling up the complexity of the biocomputing systems to complex multi-component logic networks (with a built-in "program") resulted in the control of the bioelectronic systems by multi-signal patterns of biochemical inputs. Future implantable biofuel cells, producing electrical power on-demand, depending on physiological conditions are feasible as the result of the present research. This work represents novel fundamental results in the area of renewable and non-conventional energy systems. The studied biofuel cells exemplify a new kind of bioelectronic devices where the electrical power production is controlled by a biocomputing system. Such devices will provide a new dimension in bioelectronics and biocomputing, benefiting from the integration of both concepts.

DAILY COURIER-OBSERVER - Friday, June 25, 2010 - page 3
Biomarkers Could Save Soldiers

12 July 2010

With the aim of improving the survival rate of injured soldiers, US Scientists have designed a biocomputing system that is capable of diagnosing multiple injuries from a sample of urine or blood.
Explosions on battlefields can result in patients with multiple injuries that need quick diagnosis. Currently, this is done by physical examination and a comprehensive series of laboratory tests in hospital. When an organ is injured, the body releases chemicals that can be used as biomarkers to indicate particular internal injuries. Multiple injuries release a wide range of biomarkers and now a team led by Evgeny Katz from Clarkson University, and Joseph Wang at the University of California San Diego, have developed a diagnostic tool that can be used in the field and is able to differentiate between many chemical inputs to provide a diagnosis. The system comprises six logic gates made from enzymes that are sensitive to twelve biomarker inputs associated with six different pathological conditions, including soft tissue injury, abdominal trauma and brain injury. The enzyme gates each produce a logic output (1 or 0), which together form a 6-bit 'injury code', that allows full diagnosis of the patient's condition. Katz says the use of biocomputing, or biomolecular chemical reactions, instead of electronic computers, simplifies the analysis so it can be performed in field conditions. He adds that 'this is the first fundamental result for the use of biocomputing systems for biomedical applications.' AP de Silva, an expert in molecular sensor technology at Queen's University Belfast in the UK, comments, 'multiplexing several enzyme gates to develop injury codes builds on previous applications of molecular logic in diagnosing electrolyte abnormalities and TB infection.' The team now intends to develop their work further for other biomedical applications and hope to develop on-body sensors.

The electronic issue: August 2010 / Volume 5 / Issue 8

January 13, 2010

Researchers from Clarkson University report details of new studies and findings in the area of biosensors and bioelectronics

According to a study from the United States, "Electrode-immobilized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is used to catalyze an enzymatic reaction which carries out the AND logic gate." "This logic function is considered here in the context of biocatalytic processes utilized for the biocomputing applications for ''digital'' (threshold) sensing/actuation. We outline the response functions desirable for such applications and report the first experimental realization of a sigmoid-shape response in one of the inputs," wrote V. Privman and colleagues, Clarkson University.

Battlefield Medic on a Chip
Sensors could one day diagnose and treat a soldier's injuries.

Tuesday, November 4, 2008
By Lauren Gravitz

The majority of deaths on the battlefield occur within half an hour after injury--often too quickly for a soldier to get to a medic, let alone a hospital. But a collaboration between researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and Clarkson University, in New York, aims to change all that with a chip that could detect injuries and treat them almost instantly. At the center of the research is a sensor, still in development, that could be used to continuously monitor a soldier's blood, sweat, or even tears for biomarkers. All of these fluids contain glucose, oxygen, lactase, and the hormone norepinephrine, which fluctuate depending on a person's health and activity levels. Specific, collective changes in these markers can indicate the presence of an injury. And once the sensor picks that up, it could transmit the information elsewhere on the chip, or to another chip, and trigger release of an appropriate medication. That, at least, is the idea; the reality, however, could take a little while to develop. The head of the project, Joseph Wang, is a nanoengineering professor at UCSD whose office is packed with electronic sensors of every shape but only two sizes: small and even smaller. Wang, who previously helped develop a noninvasive glucose monitor that samples sweat, is no stranger to continuous sensing. But rather than picking up just one signal, the new sensor will need to differentiate among multiple markers and interpret the results. To do this, Wang is collaborating with Clarkson's Evgeny Katz, who recently created a system that uses an enzyme-based logic gate to not only measure a combination of biomarkers but also use the results to make a limited diagnosis. Katz's system is based on enzyme-driven reactions: in the presence of certain enzymatic products, one set of "gates" is unlocked and triggers a specific chain reaction; other products trigger a completely different set of gates. The end result is a logic chain that has the potential to identify certain medical conditions. So far, Katz's enzyme logic diagnostics work only in solution. But Wang and Katz envision a system that would use an electronic sensor, one containing enzymes, to detect the presence or absence of the four biomarkers mentioned above: glucose, oxygen, lactase, and norepinephrine. In different combinations, these biomarkers can indicate different injuries, such as brain trauma or shock. Depending on the injury, the electrodes would translate the enzymatic results into a code that activates signal-dependent membranes to release the appropriate medication. If a soldier were to go into hemorrhagic shock, for example, the electrode would detect rising levels of lactate, glucose, and norepinephrine. As the electrode enzymes' product mixture begins to change, the reaction would trigger the logic gate unique to shock and, potentially, signal for the release of the appropriate medication. "We want to build a smart, intelligent sensor that can distinguish between different injuries, make the decision to treat, and, once it recognizes the injury, treat appropriately," Wang says.


POTSDAM — Clarkson University is a joint recipient of two grants totaling $3 million to advance research into sensor technology, which professors say could be the next frontier of science.

Clarkson announced Tuesday that one of its professors will be a co-principal investigator on a $1.6 million joint grant project with the University of California-San Diego. Evgeny Katz, the college's Milton Kerker chaired professor, hopes to develop a "field hospital on a chip" that could save soldiers' lives on the battlefield. Using biocomputing and enzymes, he is creating an automated sense-and-treat system that could continuously monitor the wearer's blood, sweat or tears for markers that signal common injuries such as trauma, shock, brain injury or fatigue. "For example, if the soldier has a small oxygen concentration and high adrenaline, we'll know they're under stress and probably very wounded," he said. The ultimate goal is for the biological sensor to detect an illness and then administer the proper medication immediately, helping to speed recovery before a soldier even reaches a field hospital, Mr. Katz said. "It means the soldier will get immediate medical treatment in the few minutes after they are wounded, even before they are evacuated to hospital. It could save his life maybe for these critical minutes," Mr. Katz said. UC San Diego Professor Joseph Wang is also a co-principal investigator for the project. At Clarkson, the funding will back two postdoctoral researchers and one graduate student to help with the study, as well as the cost of expensive biochemicals. Thanks to a $1.4 million National Science Foundation grant announced last week, Clarkson also will soon expand a high school science, technology, engineering and math curriculum that it created along with the Beacon Institute for Rivers and Estuaries. The two institutions hope to teach 9,000 students to build, test and deploy sensors to monitor water quality in the Hudson and St. Lawrence rivers. "Sensors are also going to shift paradigms in how we investigate things. We're going to need a new work force — just like we needed computer and Internet people — to accommodate that," said James S. Bonner, director of Clarkson's Center for the Environment and research director for the Beacon Institute. Through the Student Enabled Network of Sensors for the Environment using Innovative Technology program, high school science teachers from St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Franklin and Dutchess counties, as well as the city of Troy, will receive training. SENSE IT lessons will include both in-class and out-of-school programming. "They say the 1980s was the decade of the personal computer, and the 1990s was the decade of the Internet. Now we're coming into the decade of the sensor," said Susan E. Powers, associate dean for research and graduate studies at Clarkson's Coulter School of Engineering. "The idea with sensors is that we can do this, provide a real-time understanding of what the water quality looks like in these great rivers, and better prepare students for the technologies they're going to be faced with in the near term."

Nov 29 2008

In the battlefield of the future, soldiers with traumatic injuries may get treatment before even reaching a medic. Scientists at several universities are creating what is called a “field hospital” on a microchip. This microchip could be worn by almost any soldier. It would allow the immediate detection of a traumatic injury and then could administer medication simultaneously. Most battle wounds require treatment within the first 30 minutes. Two researchers, Joseph Wang from University of California and Evgeny Katz of Clarkson University are getting a 1.6 million dollar grant coming from the Office of Naval Research. They will use the money to create a high-tech field hospital on a chip. The chip itself will be automated and will be able to continuously monitor several biomarkers coming from a soldier. It will test the sweat and blood for common indicators of battlefield injuries. It will also be able to diagnose traumatic brain injuries and can adjust the necessary medication dose.  This may go a long way in reducing brain injuries sustained from an insult.

The battlefield of the future may react differently to combat injuries, providing instant treatment to wounded soldiers even before a medic reaches their side. Impossible? Not if researchers at universities on opposite sides of the country succeed in creating a "field hospital on a chip" - a system worn by every soldier that would detect an injury and automatically administer the right medication. Survival of battlefield wounds often depends on the level of treatment within the first 30 minutes. Evgeny Katz of Clarkson University in Potsdam, N.Y., and Joseph Wang of the University of California, San Diego, will share a four-year, $1.6 million grant from the Office of Naval Research to create the high-tech field hospital. The automated sense-and-treat system will continuously monitor a soldier's sweat, tears or blood for biomarkers that signal common battlefield injuries such as trauma, shock, brain injury or fatigue and then automatically administer the proper medication. Katz will lead a team of researchers who are working on creating enzymes that can measure the biomarkers and provide the logic necessary to make a limited set of diagnoses based on several biological variables. "We have already designed bioelectrodes and biofuel cells responding to multiple biochemical signals in a logic way," says Katz, co-principal investigator on the project. "In the future we could expect implantable devices controlled by physiological signals and responding to the needs of an organism, notably a human." Katz, who joined the Clarkson faculty two years ago from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, holds the Milton Kerker Endowed Chair of Colloid Science at Clarkson. His current research is a continuation of work begun before joining the Clarkson faculty. Wang, principal investigator on the project, will head a nanoengineering team in San Diego that will build a minimally invasive system for the soldier's body to process the biomarker information, develop a diagnosis and begin administering the proper medications. "Since the majority of battlefield deaths occur within the first 30 minutes after injury, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial for enhancing the survival rate of injured soldiers," says Wang. Wang and Katz hope that the resulting enzyme-logic sense-and-treat system will revolutionize the monitoring and treatment of injured soldiers and will lead to dramatic improvements in their survival rate.

Summary of Current Research
Cutting-edge research is currently being conducted at the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science and NanoBio Laboratory, Clarkson University (Potsdam, NY) to integrate biofuel cells with biocomputing systems. The talented team of postdoctoral researchers and graduate students headed by Prof. Evgeny Katz at Clarkson has designed biofuel cells with a switchable power release controlled by biochemical signals that are logically processed by biomolecular computing systems. The switchable properties of the biofuel cells were based on polymer-modified electrodes, and their activity depends upon the pH value of the surrounding solution. At a certain pH value, the polymer swells to open the electrode surface for electrochemical reactions, while another pH value causes the polymer to shrink, thus closing the electrode interface and inhibiting electrochemical processes on it. The pH changes generated in situ by biocatalytic reactions allowed the reversible activation–inactivation of the bioelectrocatalytic interfaces, thus affecting the activity of the biofuel cell as a whole. Boolean logic operations performed by either enzymes- or immuno-based systems were functionally integrated with the switchable biocatalytic process, thereby allowing logic control over them. Scaling up the complexity of the biocomputing systems to complex multi-component logic networks with a built-in “program” resulted in the control of the bioelectronic systems by multi-signal patterns of biochemical inputs. The studied biofuel cells demonstrated for the first time the possibility to control power release by biochemical signals processed according to the Boolean logic operations “programmed” into the biocomputing systems. Specific pathophysiological conditions, such as injuries, can activate the “programmed” implanted biofuel cell using the produced power for drug release.

Future Developments
The present research paves the way for the future development of implantable biofuel cells that produce on-demand electrical power depending on physiological conditions. This opens opportunities for future implantable bioelectronic devices that will be logically controlled by physiological conditions, including various biomarkers, substrates and immuno-signals. Patients with unstable rapidly changing physiological conditions will receive the automatically adjusted power release from the implanted biofuel cell. The systems designed and the experiments performed demonstrate the concepts and illustrate possible approaches to resolving these issues, highlighting many possible directions for further research. The complexity of the biocomputing system that controls the biofuel cell should be increased to achieve a complex multi-component/multi-functional logic network. This network will provide efficient processing of multi-signal information from the human body to adjust the power release from the implanted biofuel cell accordingly. Further development of sophisticated enzyme-based biocomputing networks will be an important phase in the development of “smart” bioelectronic devices. Scaling up the complexity of the biocomputing system that controls biofuel cell activity will be achieved by networking immuno- and enzyme-based logic gates responding to a large variety of biochemical signals.

March 25, 2008
Molecular Computation

Carmen Drah

lA security-type control system with a password made up of enzymes rather than numbers or letters has been devised by Evgeny Katz and coworkers at Clarkson University in Potsdam, N.Y. This type of biochemical network, which mimics an electronic keypad lock, could one day be used to control implantable medical devices based on individual body chemistry (J. Am. Chem. Soc., DOI: 10.1021/ja7114713).

CODE An enzyme-based security-type keypad begins with a solution of sucrose, a dye, and oxygen. The password consists of three enzymes (blue, yellow, and red) that must be added to the solution in the right order. The correct combination oxidizes the dye to a colored product, a measurable output.

Another research group has already made this type of chemical device from a pathway that manipulates synthetic fluorophores (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 347). However, the new system is made from biochemical components, so it "offers advantages in terms of biocompatibility," says molecular electronics expert Devens Gust of Arizona State University. It is also highly adaptable; enzymes or substrates can be changed for different applications, Katz tells C&EN. To demonstrate the system, Katz's team developed a sucrose solution containing a dye that would yield a colored output after a sequence of three enzymes is added to it. The first enzyme, invertase, hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose. The next enzyme oxidizes glucose while reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Finally, a peroxidase uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the dye to a measurable colored product. No colored product is formed unless all three enzymes are added in the correct order. It's too early to know whether this type of enzyme network may be used for making molecular-level decisions in the body, such as releasing a drug in response to a specific sequence of biochemical events, Katz says. For now, the team is working on reconfiguring enzyme networks to process biochemical information in different ways.

ScienceDaily (Mar. 25, 2008) — Researchers in New York are reporting an advance toward a new generation of ultra-powerful computers built from DNA and enzymes, rather than transistors, silicon chips, and plastic. A new report on the development of a key component for these "biomolecular computers"  has just been published.

Evgeny Katz and colleagues describe development of a chemical "keypad lock," one of the first chemical-based security systems of its kind. The researchers note that years of effort have gone into developing biomolecular computers, which rely on chemical reactions rather than silicon chips to perform logic functions. Among their uses would be encryption of financial, military, and other confidential information. Only individuals with access to a secret "key" -- a chemical key -- could unlock the file and access the data.
The research by Katz and colleagues solved one part of this technological challenge: The security code. They identified a series of naturally occurring chemical reactions that act as a "keypad lock." In laboratory studies, they demonstrated that by adding the correct series of chemicals, the lock could be opened to access the computer. On the other hand, adding the incorrect chemicals to the system acts as a wrong password and prevents access to the computer, they say. "In addition to the biomolecular security applications, the enzyme-based implication logic networks will be extremely important for making autonomous decisions on the use of specific tools/drugs in various implantable medical systems."

Clarkson University, Center for Advanced Materials Processing (CAMP)
CAMP NEWSLETTER Volume 23, No. 3, March 2008

Professor Evgeny Katz Initiates Novel Biocomputing Project

Clarkson Magazine, 2008 President's Report, pages 16-18

Battlefield Medic on a Chip - Sensors could one day diagnose and treat soldier's injuries

Clarkson Magazine, Vol. MMVIII, No. 2, Fall 2008, page 3

National Recognition - PhD student in the group of Prof. Evgeny Katz received an award.

Advance News, St Lawrence County Newspapers, Sunday, March 23, 2008
Clarkson 'Key Pad' Biomolecular Computer Research In Spotlight

CAMP June Newsletter: June 2008, Page 5
Professor Evgeny Katz’s Biocomputing Projects Achieve their Goals

Professor Evgeny Katz and his group achieve the goals of their biocomputing projects. From left in back row:  Dr. Marcos Pita, graduate student Melina Kraemer, Professor Evgeny Katz, and graduate student Guinevere Strack.  From left in front row:  Graduate students Tam Tsz Kin and Zhou Jean.
The novel biocomputing projects, initiated by Professor Evgeny Katz (the Milton Kerker Chaired Professor in Colloid Science at Clarkson University) and his group, are achieving their goals. In March the group proudly reported that biomolecular systems could perform logic operations mimicking electronic logic gates, like those used in keypad lock security systems. Professor Katz and his group have also been collaborating with Professor Sergiy Minko. A result of this joint effort is the use of enzymatic logic operations to control different responsive materials such as polymeric membranes, brushes, and colloidal suspensions. Furthermore, these controlled materials can be deposited on an electroactive surface. This is carried out by controlling the swollen and shrunken states of these materials using the logic operation to switch their electrochemical properties on and off.  In addition, Professor Katz’s group collaborated with Professor Vladimir Privman.  This work yielded a very interesting theoretical analysis of the electronics mimicked with the biological systems. The biocomputing research being carried out at Clarkson is currently supported by two NSF-sponsored grants. This multi-disciplinary research in biocomputing includes the collaborative efforts of several groups led by Professors Katz, Minko, Privman, and Sokolov.  Results of this work have already been published in high ranking journals, such as Journal of the American Chemical Society, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ChemBioChem and Electroanalysis.

Updated on November 30, 2014